Jumat, 15 November 2013

Bandung


Bandung
the Bandung (/ˈbændʊŋ/ or /ˈbɑːndʊŋ/) (Indonesian: Kota Bandung) is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, the country's third largest city, and second largest metropolitan area in Indonesia with a population of 2.4 million in 2010. Located 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level, approximately 140 kilometres (87 miles) south east of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler temperatures year-round than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason for Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.
The Dutch colonials first established tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the capital (180 kilometres (112 miles) to the northwest). The Dutch inhabitants of the city demanded establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed itself into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafes and European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java (Dutch: "The Paris of Java").

Culture
Bandung is the capital of the Sundanese, the main culture of the provinces West Java and Banten. Within this cultural hemisphere, only Jakarta is excluded. The Sundanese have their own cultural legacy and language, which is truly unique and can be experienced in no place better than Bandung . Predominantly, Sundanese people believe in monotheism as a form of organized religion, in this case Islam. During pre-Islamic period, dynamism and animism were two sets of beliefs that Sundanese practiced. Hence, these old belief systems coupled with Hinduism still play a big role in particular regions of West Java , i.e. Kampung Naga community and Baduy tribe . Although Sundanese are predominantly religious, they tend to also be very open-minded and welcoming to foreigners and their habits. A distinct facet of Sundanese culture is its food. Sundanese like to party. Rites of passage such as circumcision and weddings are celebrated in big feasts, with whole neighborhoods showing up and joining in the fun and specially-prepared food.
Marriage is conducted in extravagant celebratory feasts, with the bride and groom dressing up in elaborate Sundanese costumes, which will be changed no less than 5 times. Often a saucy Dangdut (very loud percussion fueled music accompanied by banal lyrics and erotic dancing) performance is hired that will make for a boombastic show during the whole day. Sundanese communities are patrilineal, henceforth producing vast extended families from great grandfathers to newborn toddlers. In urban settings such as Bandung , families live in modern housing complex or flats but in rural setting they mostly live in “ Rumah Panggung ” which is a house built from wood that you can transport altogether when you move out. Sundanese take a light view on things. This fun-loving frame of mind is manifested in traditional plays and puppet shows. Also, a favorite hobby of locals is to hang around and joke around. This pastime called nangkring shows the general good- hearted nature of the Sundanese, and the relaxed atmosphere, that will embrace you in this area.

Sundanese Music Music is an essential element in Sundanese life and Bandung culture. The musical instrument "angklung" made from bamboo pipes is unique to the Sundanese. When you travel to Bandung, don't miss Saung Angklung Udjo, reputed to be finest "angklung" maker in Indonesia, who has developed a complex about 7 km from Bandung city center at Jalan Padasuka 118 which presents shows illustrating the history, manufacture and use of angklung.
Wayang Golek Another art form unique to Sundanese and Bandung culture is "wayang golek"  which is an intricate play with a cast of characters carved and painted on wood. Wayang golek is performed by a "dalang", who tells his story using these puppets. The plays can last for hours and the "galang" acts as story teller and puppet operator at the same time. Other Sundanese art forms include "sisingaan" a traditional Lion dance with its origins in Subang, "kecapi degung" and "sunda gamelan" both Sundanese music styles and "pencak silat" a Sundanese form of martial arts.

Culinary
Bandung is a paradise for food lovers. Sundanese food distinguishes itself for the variety of steamed dishes, such as nasi timbel (rice steamed in banana leaf) and little packages called pepes (steamed fish, meat or tofu in banana leaf). Also Sundanese meals are often accompanied by raw vegetable salad, with spicy sauces. Apart from these main dishes, Bandung has several specialties that can be found only in the city and are hugely popular with local tourists. Examples are surabi (sweet or salty filled little baked pancakes), cendol (a drink with jelly and sweetened with coconut milk and palm sugar), colenak (roasted cassave root, again with either sweet or salty topping) batagor (baso tahu goreng, fried chunks of fish and tahu eaten in a soup or dry with peanut sauce). When walking around in Bandung , it is difficult to not think about food. It is virtually everywhere, from small street stalls to big family restaurants; you will never be more than 10 meters away from food. There is simply too much on offer to describe. The only way is to get out there and try ‘em one by one.  A strong element in Sundanese Bandung culture is the food with its emphasis on steamed dishes often served, as in much of Indonesia, in banana leaves. Sambal (chili based sauce) accompanies everything together with a huge choice of raw vegetables. Some food specialities such as batagor (crispy fried fish/tahu with spicy peanut sauce), cendol (coconut drink with jelly beans), surabi (a small thick pancake of corn flower and rice) are exclusive to Bandung and delight the visitor. Food choice is everywhere from the 5 star hotels with local / international menus to small street stalls selling chicken sate or bakso to the street warungs with more extensive local menus. Walk or drive anywhere in Bandung and you will find something to tempt your palette. See our pages on Bandung Sundanese food and Bandung Indonesian food.


Architecture
Architecturally significant buildings in Bandung For those who travel to Bandung in search of individual buildings of architectural significance or roads where the colonial influences of tree lined streets and large houses still remain, here are some examples to visit.

Gedung Merdeka Jalan Asia-Afrika 65 The building was originally constructed in 1895 as a meeting place for plantation owners. It was re-built in 1921 and then restored in 1940. In 1965 it was selected as the venue for the Asian African Conference and is now used as a venue for international conferences. It is a visually appealing building with a unique shape and a fusion of architectural styles. The main style is influenced by the Italian Renaissance period and yet there are Hindu / Balinese symbols on the main elevation and the roof incorporates Thai or Balinese principles in the way that the roofs overlap. Cipaganti Mosque Jalan Cipaganti Built in 1933 and designed by the Dutch architect Schoemaker who was also responsibe for the designs of Villa Isola and Gedung Medeka. The centre facade is original but there are now modern extensions on each side.

Nature
Visit the montane area in the south, and you can enjoy the exotic panorama and the fresh, cold mountain air.
The forests and tea plantations are more lush than those in the north, and offer an opportunity for natural adventures that will relieve your fatigue. Cellular signals are generally absent in the area, so you can rest assured that nobody will disturb your holiday.
The southern tourist area of Ciwidey is located about 35 kilometers from downtown Bandung, and is quite accessible. From Jakarta, head to Bandung and get on the road toward Cileunyi at the Padalarang toll gate. Exit at the Kopo toll gate and turn right, then head straight until you pass Soreang on your way to Ciwidey.
Along the Ciwidey road leading to the area's tourist hub, you can stop briefly on the way to pick strawberries at one of a dozen strawberry orchards. At a price of Rp 20,000 to Rp 40,000 per kilogram, you can pick your fill of fresh, ripe strawberries. Roadside vendors selling strawberry jam and syrup also line the route.
The first interesting site -- and the favorite among visitors -- is the Kawah Putih (White Crater), which looks like a lake surrounded by mountains. The water is warm and has a high sulfur content, and the sun's rays frequently change the color of the water from milky white into bluish green.
The Kawah Putih is formed by the active volcano of Mount Patuha, situated 2,343 meters above sea level. This crater is more famous than Kawah Saat to the west of Patuha. Both craters were formed between the 10th to 12th centuries by the eruption of Mount Patuha.
Locals living around the crater once thought it to be haunted because of the many ancestral graves in the area, which was formerly called Gunung Sepuh (Mountain of the Elders). Patuha comes from the Sundanese word Patua, meaning ""very old man"".
The beauty of the crater was brought to light by Dutchman Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn, who exposed it to the public in 1837.
History also records that the Dutch built Zwavel Otgining Kawah Putih, a sulfur factory, in the area. During the Japanese occupation of 1942-45, the factory assumed its Japanese name, the Kawah Putih Kenzanka Gokoya Ciwidey.
Today, visitors to Kawah Putih can wade in the waters of Kawah Putih to cure minor dermatological diseases.
Gunadi Priyogo, 29, for example, entered the lake to get rid of the itchiness and bad odor of his feet.
""It is said the water here can heal rashes, even eczema and ringworm,"" said Gunadi, who came from north Bandung along with his wife and his daughter.
To visit Kawah Putih, make sure that you get there before 10 a.m., because a mist descends in late morning, especially during the rainy season. The thick mist can obscure the beautiful panorama around the crater lake, the banks of which resembles a sandy beach.
Here, strawberries can be bought for less than if you picked them yourself. Half a kilogram of strawberries costs between Rp 5,000 and Rp 10,000. In addition, you can also buy pepino fruit for Rp 5,000 per kilogram. This fruit, which resembles a pear or an eggplant in shape, tastes like a melon. The vendors usually tell you that a pepino is good for lowering high blood pressure or high blood sugar.
At Kawah Putih, you can also find a number of stalls selling bandrek, a traditional Sundanese beverage made of ginger and brown palm sugar. This beverage is highly suitable for cold weather, as drinking bandrek will warm your body. The most famous bandrek is the Abah bandrek, made by an old man who is a Ciwidey native.
To the side of the entrance to Kawah Putih is a track for All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), which you can drive for Rp 25,000 a person.
Leaving Kawah Putih, you can visit Rancaupas where deer are bred in captivity. Rancaupas, also a camp site, is located about 1 kilometer from the crater.
The captive breeding of Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), which can usually be called by whistling to them, was begun in 1980 by the area's tourism management, the West Java-Banten Forestry Unit III. The deer live on a plot of some 3.6 hectares, and visitors can watch them from beyond the property's wire fence in special huts.
After the deer, visitors can head to Cimanggu and Rancawalini -- the latter also known as Ciwalini -- which have public hot-water pools to relieve fatigue.
An entrance ticket to a tourist site in Ciwidey costs on average Rp 5,000 per person and an added fee of Rp 10,000 per vehicle if you go by car.
The public pools at Cimanggu and Ciwalini, which both draw their hot water from Mount Patuha have an entrance fee of Rp 5,000. Private pools are available for another Rp 5,000.
A common sight at the hot-water pools are women and men massaging their bodies in the water. Just like the water in Kawah Putih, the sulfur in the hot-water pools is believed to be effective in curing rashes.
Further down the road from the pools is the tea plantation owned by PTPN VIII, which spans a vast area -- a lush, green panorama to enjoy all day, and free of charge. Hundreds of local workers can be seen picking tea leaves here from morning to early afternoon.
You can then proceed on your journey to Situ Patengan, which is known to many Sundanese as Patenggang. Situ is a Sundanese word meaning lake.
The local legend of star-crossed lovers Prabu Ki Santang and Dewi Rengganis adds another level of attraction to the lake. Legend has it that the two lovers were separated and sought each other for many, many years. This ""seeking"" is called pateang-teang in Sundanese, and Patengan is though to derive from this word.
It is said the tears that flowed from the lovers pooled to form the lake, and the spot where Santang and Rengganis were finally reunited is marked by a ""love stone"". The stone has raised many a visitor's curiosity, as it is rarely visible.
Boats are available at Rp 5,000 per person for visitors to sail to the center of the lake, while others enjoy water-biking at Rp 10,000 an hour for one.
The lake, which is relatively clean and well maintained, faces the problem of sedimentation during the dry season, which can cause the lake to decrease in depth by 10 meters. The sedimentation is caused by upstream damage to the Cirengganis River, which has loosed dirt and is carried downstream as mud to be deposited on the shores of the lake.
Situ Pateng, which measures about 45,000 hectares, is part of a nature reserve spanning 123,000 hectares.
While northern Bandung attracts over 20 million tourists a year, the south is not yet popular. Due to the lack of promotion, the Bandung municipal tourism office records only 3.2 million tourists annually to the natural tourism destinations in Ciwidey and its surrounding area -- considered an economic engine for the people of southern Bandung.



Daftar Pustaka
http://www.bandung-indonesia.com/about/culture.htm
http://latitudes.nu/introduction-to-west-java/
Bandung (/ˈbændʊŋ/ or /ˈbɑːndʊŋ/) (Indonesian: Kota Bandung) is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, the country's third largest city, and second
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2007/06/15/natural-attractions-abound-montane-ciwidey.html